CHEMICAL BONDING: introduction of chemical bonding

Chemicals bonding result from the the combination of atoms, ion, molecules. Bonding is the forces that bind atoms, with atoms and atoms with molecules.

Atoms is smallest particles of an element which can take part in a chemical reaction.

While molecules is the smallest particle of a substance which can normally exist, and still retain the chemical properties of each constitute atom/element.

Getty image: Structures of Atom

Atom is made up of Protons electrons, and neutrons, the protons which carries positive (+) which also known as atomic number and neutron which is neutral contribute to the atomic mass of elements/atoms the electron there carries negative (-) and mainly determine the fundamental unit of electric charges, the negative charges and they also contribute more to the structure of an element.

For example

Neutral Sodium (Na)

Atomic number/proton= 11

Mass number = 23

Neutron = 23 – 11 = 12

Electron = 23

Note that neutral sodium here means the sodium (Na) did not Carry any charges (Na+), if it carry charges the value for the electron will definitely change

For example

Sodium (Na+)

Atomic number = 11

Mass number  = 23

Neutron = 23 – 11 = 12

Electron = +1

The reason why it is +1 is because it remain only one electron that it will need to give out so that it can able to attain duplet or octet electronics configuration, this is where the chemical combination results from.

Which means before atoms or molecules combine to react in other to attain that duplet or octet configuration…

In the periodic table it is only noble gasses example Helium (He) Neon(Ne) that already attained that duplet and octet structure which means they are inert, they did not need to combine to form any chemicals again.

The electronic configuration of Neon (Ne) of atomic number 10 is

K = 2

L = 8

ELC = 2, 8

While that of Sodium (Na)  of atomic number 11 is

K = 2

L = 8

M = 1

ELC = 2,8,1

If you take  look at the preview above you will see that neon already attained that octet (8) configuration structure and did not need to share or transfer to attain that again since it only have 8 in the outermost shell

While sodium only have 1 in the outermost shell will need to transfer that 1 to another element that also need 1 to attain duplet or octet structure so they can balance.

So Chemical bonding result in the process is when sodium will transfer it one electron to another element so that they can attain duplet or octet structure .

Categories of chemicals combination.

Chemical bond can be categorise into two namely.

1. Interatomic or intramolecular bonds

2. Intermolecular bonds

Interatomic or intramolecular bonds

Interatomic is also know as intramolecular bonds as the names implies it is type of bonds that occurs between two different atoms I.e bonding that occurs within molecule, that join one atom to another atom.


Inter-atomic = bond that join one atom to another atom.


Intra-molecular = bond that exist within molecules.

Example of bonds that exist as interatomic are electrovalent/Ionic bonds Covalent bonds, coordinate covalent bonds, metallics bonds.

Intermolecular bonds

Intermolecular bonds is the type of bonds that act between molecules it occurs between separate molecules.

Intermolecular bonds are one of the main reason that matter exists in different states (solids, liquids and gases) and theirs forces also determines physical properties of a matters such solubility, boiling , and viscosity in solids.

Example of intermoleculars bonds are Van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonds.


1. Atom are made up of proton (+) electron (-) and neutron ()

2. The combination of atoms, molecules, ions, to attain duplet or octet structure results in Chemical combination and bonding.

3. All atom, most attain duplet or octet configuration to be stable.

4. The combining power of an element is valence

5. Noble gas eg helium are called inert gas because they are stable and can not react to form Chemical reactions.

6. The strength of inter-moleculars forces determines the physical properties of matters


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